lobbying

[#item_title]

Lobbying, any attempt by individuals or private interest groups to influence the decisions of government; in its original meaning it referred to efforts to influence the votes of legislators, generally in the lobby outside the legislative chamber. Lobbying in some form is inevitable in any political system[1].

Lobbying, which has gained special attention in the United States[3], takes many forms. Group representatives may appear before legislative committees. Public officials may be “buttonholed” in legislative offices, hotels, or private homes. Letters may be written or telephone calls made to public officials, and campaigns may be organized for that purpose. Organizations may provide favoured candidates with money and services. Massive public-relations campaigns employing all the techniques of modern communication may be launched to influence public opinion[4]. Extensive research into complex legislative proposals may be supplied to legislative committees by advocates of various and often conflicting interests. Substantial election[5] campaign contributions or other assistance may be supplied to favoured legislators or executives. The persons who lobby in those ways may be full-time officials of a powerful trade or agricultural association or labour union[6], individual professional lobbyists with many clients who pay for their services, or ordinary citizens who take the time to state their hopes or grievances. Cities and states, consumer and environmental protection and other “public interest” groups, and various branches of the federal government also maintain staff lobbyists in the United States.

Most legal scholars and judges consider lobbying to be protected by the First Amendment[7] to the U.S. Constitution[8], which guarantees the right “to petition[9] the government for a redress of grievances.” Nevertheless, the federal government and a majority of the states regulate lobbying. Most such laws, including the Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act (1946), require that lobbyists register and report contributions and expenditures and that groups whom they represent make similar reports.

The efficacy[10] of those laws is doubtful, however. Especially difficult to regulate is any kind of indirect lobbying—such as group activity designed to influence government by shaping public opinion.

Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.
Subscribe Now[11]

[2]

References

  1. ^ political system (www.britannica.com)
  2. ^ Read More on This Topic interest group: Lobbying strategies and tactics As discussed above, lobbying involves working to bring pressure to bear on policy makers to gain favourable policy outcomes. In order to… (www.britannica.com)
  3. ^ United States (www.britannica.com)
  4. ^ public opinion (www.britannica.com)
  5. ^ election (www.britannica.com)
  6. ^ labour union (www.britannica.com)
  7. ^ First Amendment (www.britannica.com)
  8. ^ U.S. Constitution (www.britannica.com)
  9. ^ petition (www.britannica.com)
  10. ^ efficacy (www.merriam-webster.com)
  11. ^ Subscribe Now (premium.britannica.com)

Source URL: Read More
The public content above was dynamically discovered – by graded relevancy to this site’s keyword domain name. Such discovery was by systematic attempts to filter for “Creative Commons“ re-use licensing and/or by Press Release distributions. “Source URL” states the content’s owner and/or publisher. When possible, this site references the content above to generate its value-add, the dynamic sentimental analysis below, which allows us to research global sentiments across a multitude of topics related to this site’s specific keyword domain name. Additionally, when possible, this site references the content above to provide on-demand (multilingual) translations and/or to power its “Read Article to Me” feature, which reads the content aloud to visitors. Where applicable, this site also auto-generates a “References” section, which appends the content above by listing all mentioned links. Views expressed in the content above are solely those of the author(s). We do not endorse, offer to sell, promote, recommend, or, otherwise, make any statement about the content above. We reference the content above for your “reading” entertainment purposes only. Review “DMCA & Terms”, at the bottom of this site, for terms of your access and use as well as for applicable DMCA take-down request.

Acquire this Domain
You can acquire this site’s domain name! We have nurtured its online marketing value by systematically curating this site by the domain’s relevant keywords. Explore our content network – you can advertise on each or rent vs. buy the domain. Buy@TLDtraders.com | Skype: TLDtraders | +1 (475) BUY-NAME (289 – 6263). Thousands search by this site’s exact keyword domain name! Most are sent here because search engines often love the keyword. This domain can be your 24/7 lead generator! If you own it, you could capture a large amount of online traffic for your niche. Stop wasting money on ads. Instead, buy this domain to gain a long-term marketing asset. If you can’t afford to buy then you can rent the domain.

About Us
We are Internet Investors, Developers, and Incubators- operating a content network of several thousand sites while federating 20+ eCommerce and SaaS startups. With our proprietary “inverted incubation” model, we leverage a portfolio of $15M+ in valued domains to impact online trends, traffic, and transactions. We use robotic process automation, machine learning, and other proprietary approaches to power our content network. Discover our work!

Share